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Noise music is a term used to describe varieties of avant-garde music and sound art that may use elements such as cacophony, dissonance, atonality, noise, indeterminacy, and repetition in their realization.

Noise music can feature distortion, various types of acoustically or electronically generated noise, randomly produced electronic signals, and non-traditional musical instruments. Noise music may also incorporate manipulated recordings, static, hiss and hum, feedback, live machine sounds, custom noise software, circuit bent instruments, and non-musical vocal elements that push noise towards the ecstatic.[1] The Futurist art movement was important for the development of the noise aesthetic, as was the Dada art movement, and later the Surrealist and Fluxus art movements, specifically the Fluxus artists Joe Jones and Takehisa Kosugi.[2]

During the early 1900s a number of art music practitioners began exploring atonality. Composers such as Arnold Schoenberg proposed the incorporation of harmonic systems that were, at the time, considered dissonant. This lead to the development of twelve tone technique and serialism.[3] In his book 1910: the Emancipation of Dissonance Thomas J. Harrison suggests that this development might be described as a metanarrative to justify the so called dionysian pleasures of atonal noise.[4]
Contemporary noise music is often associated with excessive volume and distortion, particularly in the popular music domain with examples such as Boys Noize, Jimi Hendrix’s use of feedback, Nine Inch Nails and Lou Reed’s Metal Machine Music.[5]

Other examples of music that contain noise based features include works by Iannis Xenakis, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Helmut Lachenmann, Theatre of Eternal Music, Rhys Chatham, Ryoji Ikeda, Survival Research Laboratories, Whitehouse, Cabaret Voltaire, Psychic TV, the music of Hermann Nitsch’s Orgien Mysterien Theater, and La Monte Young’s bowed gong works from the late 1960s. Genres such as industrial, industrial techno, and glitch music exploit noise based materials.[6]

Avant-garde precursors:
Luigi Russolo, a futurist painter of the very early 20th century, was perhaps the first noise artist.[7] His 1913 manifesto, L'Arte dei Rumori, translated as The Art of Noises, stated that the industrial revolution had given modern men a greater capacity to appreciate more complex sounds. Russolo found traditional melodic music confining and envisioned noise music as its future replacement. He designed and constructed a number of noise-generating devices called Intonarumori and assembled a noise orchestra to perform with them. A performance of his Gran Concerto Futuristico (1917) was met with strong disapproval and violence from the audience, as Russolo himself had predicted. None of his intoning devices have survived, though recently some have been reconstructed and used in performances. Although Russolo's works bear little resemblance to modern noise music, his pioneering creations cannot be overlooked as an essential stage in the evolution of this genre, and many artists are now familiar with his manifesto.

An early Dada related work from 1916 by Marcel Duchamp also worked with noise, but in an almost silent way. His ready-made With Hidden Noise (A Bruit Secret) was a collaborative exercise that created a noise instrument that Duchamp accomplished with Walter Arensberg. What rattles inside when With Hidden Noise is shaken remains a mystery. [9]
By the 1920s, modernists Edgard Varèse and George Antheil began to use early mechanical musical instruments—such as the player piano and the siren—to create music that mirrored the noise of the modern world.[10] Antheil’s best-known noise composition is his 30 minutes long Ballet Mécanique (1924), originally conceived as the musical accompaniment to the Dada film of the same name by Dudley Murphy and Fernand Léger. Eventually the film makers and composers chose to let their creations evolve separately, although the film credits still included Antheil. Nevertheless, Ballet Mécanique premiered as concert music in Paris in 1926.[11] Antonio Russolo was another Italian Futurist composer; the brother of the more famous Luigi Russolo. There exists a 78 rpm record made by him in 1921 that is the only surviving sound recording that features the original intonarumori. Both pieces, Corale and Serenata, combined conventional orchestral music set against the famous noise machines. In 1923 Arthur Honegger created Pacific 231, a modernist musical composition that imitates the sound of a steam locomotive. Arseny Avraamov's composition Symphony of Factory Sirens involved navy ship sirens and whistles, bus and car horns, factory sirens, cannons, foghorns, artillery guns, machine guns, hydro-airplanes, a specially designed steam-whistle machine creating noisy renderings of Internationale and Marseillaise for a piece conducted by a team using flags and pistols when performed in the city of Baku in 1922. [12]

In the 1930s, Pierre Boulez (who made his name with violently expressive scores and opinionated polemics) embodied a strict sound style shorn of Romantic nostalgia and the detritus of a defunct tradition. [13] Boulez moved on to the rigorously organized technique of total serialism, which organized various aspects of sound — pitch, duration, volume, and attack — into series of twelve, in line with the twelve-tone system. [14] Under the influence of Henry Cowell in San Francisco,[15] Lou Harrison and John Cage began composing music for "junk" percussion ensembles, scouring junkyards and Chinatown antique shops for appropriately-tuned brake drums, flower pots, gongs, and more. Cage started his Imaginary Landscape series in 1939, which combined recorded sound, percussion, and, in the case of Imaginary Landscape #4, twelve radios.[16]

In Europe, during the late 1940s, Pierre Schaeffer coined the term musique concrète to refer to the peculiar nature of sounds on tape, separated from the source that generated them initially.[17] Following this, both in Europe and America, other modernist art music composers such as Karlheinz Stockhausen, G.M. Koenig, Pierre Henry, Iannis Xenakis, La Monte Young, and David Tudor, explored sound based composition. In late 1947 Antonin Artaud recorded Pour en Finir avec le Jugement de dieu (To Have Done With the Judgment of god), an audio piece full of the seemingly random cacophony of xylophonic sounds mixed with various percussive elements, mixed with the noise of alarming human cries, screams, grunts, onomatopoeia, and glossolalia. [18] [19] In 1949 Nouveau Realisme artist Yves Klein wrote The Monotone Symphony; a symphony that consisted of one held note - thereby demonstrating that the sound of one sustained tone made viable music. [20] Also in 1949, Boulez befriended John Cage, who was visiting Paris to do research on the music of Erik Satie. John Cage had been pushing music in even more startling directions during the war years, writing for prepared piano, junkyard percussion, and electronic gadgetry. [21] In Paris, Cage encountered the pioneering electronic composer Pierre Schaeffer, who, after the war, began assembling sound collages made up pre-recorded pieces of tape. The first of Schaeffer's Cinq Études de bruits, or Five Noise Etudes, consists of locomotive sounds that the composer recorded at a train station. [22]

Back in New York in 1952, Cage constructed his own tape collage, Williams Mix, made up of some six hundred tape fragments arranged according to the demands of the I Ching. Cage's early radical phase reached its height that summer of 1952, when he unveiled the first art "happening" at Black Mountain College, and 4'33", the so-called controversial "silent piece". The premiere of 4'33" was performed by David Tudor. The audience saw him sit at the piano, and lift the lid of the piano. Some time later, without having played any notes, he closed the lid. A while after that, again having played nothing, he lifted the lid. And after a period of time, he closed the lid once more and rose from the piano. The piece had passed without a note being played, in fact without Tudor or anyone else on stage having made any deliberate sound, although he timed the lengths on a stopwatch while turning the pages of the score. Only then could the audience recognize what Cage insisted upon: that there is no such thing as silence. Noise is always happening that makes musical sound. [23] In 1957 Edgard Varèse created on tape an extended piece of music using noises not usually considered "musical" entitled Poème électronique.[24] Amongst the techniques used in this period were tape manipulation, subtractive synthesis, and improvised live electronics.[25]

The art critic Rosalind Krauss argued that by 1968 artists such as Robert Morris, Robert Smithson and Richard Serra had "entered a situation the logical conditions of which can no longer be described as modernist."[24] Sound art found itself in the same condition, but with an added emphasis on distribution.[25] Antiform process art became the terms used to describe this post-modern post-industrial culture and the process by which it is made.[26] Serious art music responded to this conjuncture in terms of intense noise, for example the LaMonte Young Fluxus composition 89 VI 8 C. 1:42-1:52 AM Paris Encore From Poem For Chairs, Tables, Benches, Etc..[27] Young's composition Two Sounds (1960) was composed for amplified percussion and window panes and his Poem for Tables, Chairs and Benches (1960) used the sounds of furniture scraping across the flooor.[28]

Also a process anti-form "free noise" emerged out of the avant-garde jazz tradition with musicians such as John Coltrane, Pharoah Sanders, Ornette Coleman, Cecil Taylor, Eric Dolphy, Archie Shepp, Sun Ra and the Arkestra, Albert Ayler, Peter Brötzmann, and John Zorn. In the 1970s, the concept of art itself expanded and groups like Survival Research Laboratories, Borbetomagus and Elliott Sharp embraced and extended the most dissonant and least approachable aspects of these musical/spatial concepts.[29]

Around the same time, the first postmodern wave of industrial noise music appeared with Throbbing Gristle, Cabaret Voltaire, and NON (aka Boyd Rice).[30] These cassette culture releases often featured zany tape editing, stark percussion and repetitive loops distorted to the point where they may degrade into harsh noise.[31] In the 1970's and 1980s, industrial noise groups like Current 93, Hafler Trio, Throbbing Gristle, Coil, Laibach, Steven Stapleton, Thee Temple ov Psychick Youth, Smegma, Nurse with Wound, Einstürzende Neubauten performed industrial noise music mixing loud metal percussion, guitars and unconventional "instruments" (such as jackhammers and bones) in elaborate stage performances. These industrial artists experimented with varying degrees of noise production techniques.[32] Other postmodern art movements influential to postindustrial noise art are Conceptual Art and the Neo-Dada use of techniques such as assemblage, montage, bricolage, and appropriation.[33] Bands like Étant Donnés, Le Syndicat, Test Dept, Clock DVA, Factrix, Autopsia, Nocturnal Emissions, Whitehouse, Severed Heads, Sutcliffe Jügend and SPK soon followed.

The sudden post-industrial affordability of home cassette recording technology in the 1970s, combined with the simultaneous influence of punk rock, established the no wave aesthetic, and instigated what is commonly referred to as noise music today.[34]

Lou Reed's double LP album, Metal Machine Music (1975) is an early, well-known example of commercial studio noise music[35] that the music critic Lester Bangs has called the "greatest album ever made in the history of the human eardrum". [36] It has also been cited as one of the "worst albums of all time".[37] Reed was well aware of the electronic drone music of LaMonte Young.[38][39] His Theater of Eternal Music was a seminal minimal music noise group in the mid-60s with Velvet Underground cohort John Cale, Marian Zazeela, Henry Flynt, Angus Maclise, Tony Conrad, and others.[40] The Theater of Eternal Music's discordant sustained notes and loud amplification had influenced John Cale's subsequent contribution to the Velvet Underground in his use of both discordance and feedback.[41] John Cale and Tony Conrad have released noise music recordings they made during the mid-sixties, such as Cale's Inside the Dream Syndicate series (The Dream Syndicate being the alternative name given by Cale and Conrad to their collective work with LaMonte Young). [42]

The aptly-named noise rock fuses rock to noise, usually with recognizable "rock" instrumentation, but with greater use of distortion and electronic effects, varying degrees of atonality, improvisation, and white noise.[43] One notable band of this genre is Sonic Youth who took inspiration from the no wave noise composers Glenn Branca and Rhys Chatham (himself a student of LaMonte Young).[44] Marc Masters, in his book on the no wave, points out that aggressively innovative early dark noise groups like Mars and DNA drew on punk rock, avant-garde minimalism and performance art.[45] Important in this noise trajectory are the nine nights of noise music called Noise Fest that was organized by Thurston Moore of Sonic Youth in the NYC art space White Columns in June 1981[46] followed by the Speed Trials noise rock series organized by Live Skull members in May 1983. Also notable in this vein is Unfinished Music No.1: Two Virgins, an avante-garde recording by John Lennon and Yoko Ono from 1968 consisting of repeating tape loops as John Lennon plays on different rock instruments such as piano, organ and drums along with sound effects (including reverb, delay and distortion), changes tapes and plays other recordings, and converses with Yoko Ono, who vocalises ad-lib in response to the sounds.[47]

Since the late 1980s in Japan there has been a prolific output of "harsh" noise music by the noise figurehead Merzbow (pseudonym for the Japanese noise artist Masami Akita who himself was inspired by the Dada artist Kurt Schwitters’s Merz art project of psychological collage).[48]

Other Japanese noise artists include Boredoms, C.C.C.C., Incapacitants, KK Null, Yamazaki Maso’s Masonna, Solmania, The Gerogerigegege, Hanatarash. [49]

Post-industrial noise artists from the 1980s, 90s and 2000s include Nicolas Collins, Boyd Rice, The Psychic Workshop, Stephen Vitiello, If, Bwana, PBK Phillip B. Klingler, Aube, Crawling With Tarts, Andrew Deutsch, Randy Grief, Robin Rimbaud, Minoy, Kim Cascone, Master/slave Relationship, Oval, Boards of Canada, Maybe Mental, Kenji Siratori, Thanasis Kaproulias (Novi-Sad), Fennesz, Matthew Underwood, Yasunao Tone, Noise Maker's Fifes, Arcane Device, Francisco López, and others.[50] [51]

defining noise:
In defining noise music and its value, Paul Hegarty (2007) cites the work of noted cultural critics Jean Baudrillard, Georges Bataille and Theodor Adorno and through their work traces the history of "noise". He defines noise at different times as "intrusive, unwanted," "lacking skill, not being appropriate" and "a threatening emptiness". He traces these trends starting with 18th century concert hall music. Hegarty contends that it is John Cage's composition 4'33", in which an audience sits through four and a half minutes of "silence" (Cage 1973), that represents the beginning of noise music proper. For Hegarty, "noise music", as with 4'33", is that music made up of incidental sounds that represent perfectly the tension between "desirable" sound (properly played musical notes) and undesirable "noise" that make up all noise music from Erik Satie to NON to Glenn Branca.

Writer Douglas Kahn, in his work Noise, Water, Meat: A History of Sound in the Arts (1999), discusses the use of noise as a medium and explores the ideas of Antonin Artaud, George Brecht, William Burroughs, Sergei Eisenstein, Fluxus, Allan Kaprow, Michael McClure, Yoko Ono, Jackson Pollock, Luigi Russolo and Dziga Vertov.

In Noise: The Political Economy of Music (1985), Jacques Attali explores the relationship between noise music and the future of society. He indicates that noise music is a predictor of social change and demonstrates how noise acts as the subconscious of society - validating and testing new social and political realities.

Like much of modern and contemporary art, noise music takes characteristics of the perceived negative traits of noise mentioned below and uses them in aesthetic and imaginative ways. [52] One can find the distinct effort to create something harshly beautiful from something perceived as ugly in what can be identified as a search for the post-industrial sublime (philosophy) in art.[53]

In music, dissonance is the quality of sounds which seems "unstable", and has an aural "need" to "resolve" to a "stable" consonance.[54] Despite the fact that words like "unpleasant" and "grating" are often used to describe the sound of harsh dissonance, in fact all music with a harmonic or tonal basis—even music which is perceived as generally harmonious—incorporates some degree of dissonance. [55] In common use, the word noise means unwanted sound or noise pollution.[56]

In electronics noise can refer to the electronic signal corresponding to acoustic noise (in an audio system) or the electronic signal corresponding to the (visual) noise commonly seen as 'snow' on a degraded television or video image.[57] In signal processing or computing it can be considered data without meaning; that is, data that is not being used to transmit a signal, but is simply produced as an unwanted by-product of other activities. Noise can block, distort, or change the meaning of a message in both human and electronic communication.

White noise is a random signal (or process) with a flat power spectral density. [58] In other words, the signal contains equal power within a fixed bandwidth at any center frequency. White noise is considered analogous to white light which contains all frequencies. [59]

In much the same way the early modernists were inspired by naïve art, some contemporary digital art noise musicians are excited by the archaic audio technologies such as wire-recorders, the 8-track cartridge, and vinyl records. [60] Many artists not only build their own noise-generating devices, but even their own specialized recording equipment and custom software (for example, the C++ software used in creating the viral symphOny by Joseph Nechvatal).[61] [62]

Noise compilations:
An Anthology of Noise & Electronic Music, Volumes 1–7 Sub Rosa, various artists (1920–2007)
Japanese Independent Music (2000) various artists, Paris Sonore
Just Another Asshole #5 (1981) compilation LP (CD reissue 1995 on Atavistic #ALP39CD), producers: Barbara Ess & Glenn Branca
New York Noise (2003) Soul Jazz B00009OYSE
New York Noise, Vol. 2 (2006) Soul Jazz B000CHYHOG
New York Noise, Vol. 3 (2006) Soul Jazz B000HEZ5CC
Noise May-Day 2003, various artists, Coquette Japan CD Catalog#: NMD-2003
No New York (1978) Antilles, (2006) Lilith, B000B63ISE
Bip-Hop Generation (2001-2008) Volumes 1-9, various artists, Paris

Jacques Attali, Noise: The Political Economy of Music (1985) University of Minnesota Press, Translated by Brian Massumi. Foreword by Fredric Jameson, afterword by Susan McClary
Lester Bangs, Psychotic Reactions and Carburetor Dung: The Work of a Legendary Critic, collected writings, Greil Marcus, ed. (1988) Anchor Press
John Cage, Silence: Lectures and Writings (1973) Wesleyan (first edition 1961)
John Cage, The Future of Music: Credo (1937) in Silence: Lectures and Writings (1973) by John Cage, Wesleyan University Press [32]
Lawrence Cahoone, From Modernism to Postmodernism: An Anthology (1996) Cambridge, Mass: Blackwell
Henry Cowell The Joys of Noise in Audio Culture. Readings in Modern Music, C. Cox & D. Warner (eds), pp. 22- 24, Continuum, New York
DeLone et al. (eds.), Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music (1975) Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall
Erika Doss, Twentieth-Century American Art, Oxford University Press, 2002
Amy Dempsey, Art in the Modern Era: A Guide to Schools and Movements (2002) New York: Harry A. Abrams
Alec Foege. Confusion is Next: The Sonic Youth Story (1994) New York: St. Martin’s Press
Charlie Gere, Art, Time and Technology: Histories of the Disappearing Body (2005) Berg
Charles Harrison & Paul Wood, Art in Theory, 1900-2000: An Anthology of Changing Ideas (1992) Blackwell Publishing
Thomas J. Harrison, 1910, the Emancipation of Dissonance (1996) Berkeley: University of California Press
Eugene Hecht, Optics (4th ed.) (2001) Pearson Education
Paul Hegarty, Full With Noise: Theory and Japanese Noise Music, pp. 86-98 in Life in the Wires (2004) eds. Arthur Kroker & Marilouise Kroker, NWP Ctheory Books, Victoria, Canada
Paul Hegarty, Noise/Music: A History (2007) Continuum International Publishing Group
Hermann von Helmholtz,On the Sensations of Tone as a Physiological Basis for the Theory of Music (1885) 2nd English edition. New York: Dover Publications
Andreas Huyssen, Twilight Memories: Marking Time in a Culture of Amnesia (1995) Routledge
RoseLee Goldberg, Performance: Live Art Since 1960 (1998) Harry N. Abrams, NY NY
Douglas Kahn, Noise, Water, Meat: A History of Sound in the Arts (1999) MIT Press
Mark Kemp, She Who Laughs Last: Yoko Ono Reconsidered (July/Aug, 1992) Option Magazine
Rosalind E. Krauss, The Originality of the Avant Garde and Other Modernist Myths (1979) The MIT Press; Reprint edition (1986) Sculpture in the Expanded Field, The MIT Press
Brandon LaBelle, Background Noise: Perspectives on Sound Art (2006) New York and London: Continuum International Publishing
Dan Lander and Lexier Micah, (eds.) Sound by Artists (1990) Toronto: Art Metropole/Walter Phillips Gallery
Zoya Kocur & Simon Leung, Theory in Contemporary Art Since 1985 (2005) Blackwell Publishing
Alan Licht, Sound Art: Beyond Music, Between Categories (2007) New York: Rizzoli
Simon Malpas, The Postmodern (2005) Routledge
Marc Masters, No Wave (2007) Black Dog Publishing, London
John P. McGowan, Postmodernism and its Critics (1991) Cornell University Press
Thurston Moore, Mix Tape: The Art of Cassette Culture (2004) Universe
Joseph Nechvatal, Towards a Sound Ecstatic Electronica (2000) The Thing [33]
Steven Mygind Pedersen, notes on Joseph Nechvatal: viral symphOny (2007) Institute for Electronic Arts, School of Art & Design, Alfred University
Amanda Petrusich, [34] Pitchfork net Lou Reed Interview
Frank Popper, From Technological to Virtual Art (2007) MIT Press/Leonardo Books
Alex Ross (music critic), The Rest Is Noise: Listening to the Twentieth Century, (2007) Farrar, Straus and Giroux
Karl Ruhrberg, Ingo F. Walther, Art of the 20th Century (2000) Taschen
Jim Samson, Music in Transition: A Study of Tonal Expansion and Atonality, 1900–1920 (1977) New York: W.W. Norton & Company
Piero Scaruffi, Japanese Noise-Core (2003) [35]
Richard Sheppard, Modernism-Dada-Postmodernism (2000) Northwestern University Press
Owen Smith, Fluxus: The History of an Attitude (1998) San Diego State University Press
Wendy Steiner, Venus in Exile: The Rejection of Beauty in 20th-Century Art (2001) New York: The Free Press
James Tenney, A History of "Consonance" and "Dissonance" (1988) White Plains, NY: Excelsior; New York: Gordon and Breach
Steven Watson, Factory Made: Warhol and the Sixties (2003) Pantheon, New York
[36] Torben Sangild, The Aesthetics of Noise (2002) web published at UbuWeb
Michael Woods, Art of the Western World (1989) Summit Books
Brett Woodward (ed.), Merzbook: The Pleasuredome of Noise (1999) Melbourne, Cologne: Extreme

^ [1] Torben Sangild, The Aesthetics of Noise, DATANOM, 2002
^ *Owen Smith, Fluxus: The History of an Attitude (1998) San Diego State University Press, p. 7 & p. 82
^ Schoenberg, Arnold; translated by Roy E. Carter (1983). Theory of Harmony. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0520049446.
^ Harrison, Thomas J. (1996). 1910, the Emancipation of Dissonance. Berkeley: University of California Press.
^ Reed, Lou. Interview with Amanda Petrusich. Interview: Lou Reed. Pitchfork Media. 2007-09-17. Retrieved on 2008-08-18.
^ [2] best glitch music albums of all times
^ [3] Luigi Russolo, ”The Art of Noises”
^ Russolo, Luigi from The Art of Noises, circa 1913
^ [4] Ballet Mécanique
^ [[5]] The Ballet Mécanique
^ [6] Martin John Callanan, Sonification of You
^ Alex Ross, The Rest Is Noise: Listening to the Twentieth Century, (2007) Farrar, Straus and Giroux, p. 362
^ Alex Ross, The Rest Is Noise: Listening to the Twentieth Century, (2007) Farrar, Straus and Giroux, p. 363
^ Cowell, Henry. "The Joys of Noise". Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music: 22–24, New York: Continuum.
^ Cage, John (1973). Silence: Lectures and Writings. Wesleyan.
^ [7] “Musique Concrète]”
^ Antonin Artaud Pour en finir avec le jugement de dieu, Original recording. Edited with an introduction by Marc Dachy. Compact Disc. Sub Rosa/aural documents, 1995.
^ Paul Hegarty, Noise/Music: A History, pp. 25-26
^ Alex Ross, The Rest Is Noise: Listening to the Twentieth Century, (2007) Farrar, Straus and Giroux, p. 365
^ Alex Ross, The Rest Is Noise: Listening to the Twentieth Century, (2007) Farrar, Straus and Giroux, p. 369
^ Alex Ross, The Rest Is Noise: Listening to the Twentieth Century, (2007) Farrar, Straus and Giroux, p. 401
^ [[8]] OHM- The Early Gurus of Electronic Music:Edgard Varese's "Poem Electronique"
^ [[9]]"Electronic Music"
^ Krauss, Rosalind E. (July 9, 1986). The Originality of the Avant Garde and Other Modernist Myths: Sculpture in the Expanded Field. MIT Press, 30–44.
^ Joseph Nechvatal & Carlo McCormick essays in TellusTools liner notes, Harvestworks ed., 2001, New York
^ [10] Rosalind Krauss, ”Sculpture in the Expanded Field”, Vol. 8. (Spring, 1979), pp. 30-44
^ Young, La Monte. "89 VI 8 c. 1:42-1:52 AM Paris Encore" (10:33 MP3). Tellus Audio Cassette Magazine. UbuWeb.
^ [11] Prehistory of Industrial Music 1995 Brian Duguid, esp. chapter “Use of Synthesizers and Anti-Music”
^ [12] Free Noise Manifesto
^ [13] Prehistory of Industrial Music 1995 Brian Duguid, esp. chapter “Access to Information”
^ [14] Prehistory of Industrial Music 1995 Brian Duguid, esp. chapter “Shock Tactics”
^ [15] Prehistory of Industrial Music 1995 Brian Duguid, chapter “Organisational Autonomy / Extra-Musical Elements”
^ [16] The Cassette Mythos
^ [17] Prehistory of Industrial Music 1995 Brian Duguid, esp. chapter “Organisational Autonomy / Extra-Musical Elements”
^ [18] “Metal Machine Music” 8-Track Hall of Fame
^ Lester Bangs, Psychotic Reactions and Carburetor Dung: The Work of a Legendary Critic, collected writings, Greil Marcus, ed. (1988) Anchor Press, p. 200
^ Charlie Gere, Art, Time and Technology: Histories of the Disappearing Body, (2005) Berg, p.110
^ Lou Reed mentions (and misspells) La Monte Young's name on the cover of his album Metal Machine Music: "Drone cognizance and harmonic possibilities vis a vis Lamont Young's Dream Music"
^ [19] Zeitkratzer Lou Reed Metal Machine Music
^ [20] Minimalism (music)
^ Steven Watson, Factory Made: Warhol and the Sixties (2003) Pantheon, New York, p. 157
^ Steven Watson, Factory Made: Warhol and the Sixties (2003) Pantheon, New York, p. 103
^ [21] Intense Noise Rock: What exactly is noise rock?
^ [22] Rhys Chatham Composer Profiles
^ Marc Masters, (2007) No Wave London, Black Dog Publishing, pp. 42-44
^ Marc Masters, (2007) No Wave London, Black Dog Publishing, pp. 170-171
^ Mark Kemp, "She Who Laughs Last: Yoko Ono Reconsidered." (July/Aug, 1992). Option, pp. 74-81
^ [23] Paul Hegarty, ”Full With Noise: Theory and Japanese Noise Music”, Ctheory
^ [24] japnoise noisicians profiled at
^ Joseph Nechvatal & Carlo McCormick essays in TellusTools liner notes, Harvestworks ed., 2001, New York
^ Observatori 2008: After The Future, Valencia, Spain, 2008, pp. 85-109
^ [25] Paul Hegarty, Full With Noise: Theory and Japanese Noise Music, Ctheory
^ [26] Merriam Webster
^ [27] Britannica
^ [28] Britannica
^ [29] About Noise, Noise Pollution, and the Clearinghouse
^ noise generator to explore different types of noise
^ white noise in wave(.wav) format
^ Eugene Hecht, Optics (4th ed.) (2001) Pearson Education
^ [30] Torben Sangild, “The Aesthetics of Noise”, DATANOM, 2002
^ [31] Steven Mygind Pedersen, Joseph Nechvatal: viral symphOny (2007) Institute for Electronic Arts, School of Art & Design, Alfred University
^ Observatori 2008: After The Future, Valencia, Spain, 2008, p.80

Further reading:
Masami Akita, The Beauty of Noise: An Interview with Masami Akita of Merzbow (2004) in Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music (C. Cox and D. Warner, eds.) Continuum, New York,
Miguel Álvarez-Fernández Dissonance, Sex and Noise: (Re)Building (Hi)Stories of Electroacoustic Music (2005) in ICMC 2005: Free Sound Conference Proceedings, Barcelona: International Computer Music Conference; International Computer Music Association; SuviSoft Oy Ltd.
[37]Genre is Obsolete Ray Brassier's essay on noise music published at Multitudes, No. 28, (Spring 2007)
[38] Kim Cascone, The Aesthetics of Failure: 'Post-Digital' Tendencies in Contemporary Computer Music (2002) originally published in Computer Music Journal 24:4 Winter 2002, MIT Press
Paula Court, New York Noise: Art and Music from the New York Underground 1978-88 (2007) Soul Jazz Records
Charlie Gere, Digital Culture (2000) Reaktion
[39] Daniele Lombardi, Futurism and Musical Notes
[40] Robert P. Morgan, A New Musical Reality: Futurism, Modernism, and "The Art of Noises" at UbuWeb
[41] Paul Hegarty, The Art of Noise (2005) Talk given to Visual Arts Society at UCC
Douglas Kahn & Gregory Whitehead (eds.), Wireless Imagination: Sound, Radio and the Avant-Garde (1992) MIT Press
[42] Manifesto of Futurist Musicians by Francesco Balilla Pratella
Frank Popper, Art of the Electronic Age (1997) Thames & Hudson, London
RE/Search No. 6/7: Industrial Culture Handbook (1983) RE/Search Publications
Luigi Russolo, The Art of Noises (1986) New York: Pendragon
R. Murray Schafer, The Soundscape (1993) Destiny Books
[43] Pierre Schaeffer, Solfege de l'objet Sonore (1966)

-visual noise now

I am working on visual noise now